Glossary of Terms
ACE: Antegrade continent Enema. This is were a tube goes from a hole in the tummy to the appendix. This allows the accessing of the right colon for a washout or enema solutions into the colon from the top down. Also known as a Malone or MACE. Please read our leaflet on it. Also see Caecostomy and DACE.
Anorectal Manometry: A small balloon is inserted into the rectum to test the strength of the muscles in the anus. One of the tests that can be carried out for Hirschsprung's.
Anus: The bottom, where bowel motions comes out.
Barium Enema X-ray: A procedure that involves the administration of barium into the intestines by a tube inserted into the rectum. Barium is a chalky substance that enhances the visualization of the gastrointestinal tract on x ray. Similar to a Contrast Enema X-Ray. It is used to should how dilated the colon is. One of the first diagnostics tests for Hirschsprung's. This test is by no means conclusive as to whether HD is present or not.
Cecostomy/Caecostomy: This is the same a ACE, accessing the right colon but here the tube goes from the tummy into the Caecum, not the appendix. Also see Ace & DACE.
Colostomy: The colon is brought out through a hole in the tummy and it is connected to a bag. Similar to a ileostomy. A type of Stoma.
Contrast Enema X-Ray; Similar to the Barium X-Ray but other mediums are used in the enema.
DACE: As the ACE & Caecostomy but the tube goes from the tummy into the Descending Colon. This is for patients who are believed to have hold-ups effecting the left side of the colon. Not commonly used it has been found by some centres to be effective for certain groups for patients.
Enterocolitis: Severe inflammation of the intestines that affects the intestinal lining, muscle, nerves and blood vessels..
Ganglion: A type of nerve cell involved in moving stool through the large intestine. A person with HD is missing these cells from part of the large intestine.
Hirschsprung's (HD): This where the ganglion cells do not develop in the colon before birth. Also called congenital megacolon or aganglionic megacolon. First defined by Harold Hirschsprung's in 1886.
Hirschsprung's: Long Segment (LSHD): Where a large part of the intestine is affected with HD. One definition is from the rectum to, at its maximum, the transverse colon. Not all doctors recognise the different between Long and Short Segment HD
Hirschsprung's: Short Segment (SSHD): Where a smaller part of the intestine is affected with HD. One definition is from the rectum to its maximum, the upper sigmoid. Not all doctors recognise the different between Long and Short Segment HD.
Hirschsprung's: Total Colon (TCHD): Where all of the colon up to the ileum is affected with HD.
Hirschsprung's: Total Intestinal (TIHD): Where all of the colon and ileum is affected with HD. This is the rarest form of HD.
Hirschsprung's: Ultra Short (USHD): Where there is a segment of 3-4cm above the anal ring lacking ganglion cells.
Ileostomy : Where the lower intestine is brought out through a hole in the tummy and it is connected to a bag. Similar to a colostomy. A type of stoma.
Large intestine: A long tube that makes stool and carries it out of the body.
Movicol/Miralax : These are the same product just different names depending which country you are in. It is a osmotic laxative containing Macrogol.
Malone: This is another name for the ACE procedure. It is named after the surgeon PS Malone who made it popular in the 1990's. The procedure itself is over 100 years old.
Meconium: The first waste products to be discharged from the body in a newborn infant, usually greenish in colour and consisting of mucus, bile and so forth.
Peristalsis: The wave like movement in the intestine that propels the contents down to the rectum.
Pullthrough: This is the operation that is used to correct the affects of Hirschsprung's. The affected part of the bowel is removed from just above where the health bowel starts down to the anus. The good bowel is then pulled down and attached to the rectum. There are various different types of pullthroughs and styles.
Ostomy: Surgery to connect part of the intestine to a hole in the abdomen.
Rectal Biopsy: A small section of the bowel is taken to test for the absence of ganglion cells. This is to confirm Hirschsprung's Disease. A negative result does not definitely rule out Hirschsprung's
Rectum: The last section of the large intestine. Attached onto the bottom.
Stoma: A hole is made around the tummy area, through which the bowel is brought out. This allows the stool leaves the body through the hole into a bag, instead of through the anus. This is usually to allow the bowel to relax and the person to thrive until the pullthrough can be completed. There are two types of stoma, a Colostomy and an Ileostomy.
Stool: Solid waste from the body. Better known as Poo.